What Is Liquidity In Stocks? Why It's Important for Investors | SoFi (2024)

By Austin Kilham ·February 27, 2024 · 7 minute read

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What Is Liquidity In Stocks? Why It's Important for Investors | SoFi (1)

Liquidity in stocks generally refers to how quickly an investment can be bought or sold and converted into cash. The easier an investment is to sell, the more liquid it is. Plus, liquid investments generally do not charge large fees when you need to access your money.

For the average investor, liquidity is an important consideration when building a portfolio, as it’s an indicator of how easy it is to access their savings. That can be important to know and understand when sizing up your overall strategy.

Key Points

• Liquidity in stocks refers to how quickly an investment can be bought or sold and converted into cash.

• Market liquidity refers to how quickly a stock can be turned into cash, while accounting liquidity relates to meeting financial obligations.

• Stocks are generally considered liquid assets, but some stocks may be less liquid, especially those traded on foreign exchanges.

• Share turnover and bid-ask spread are metrics used to assess a stock’s liquidity.

• Liquidity risk is the risk of not finding a buyer or seller for assets, which can affect prices.

Types of Liquidity

Liquidity comes in two forms: Market liquidity and accounting liquidity. Here’s how the two are different.

Market Liquidity

Market liquidity refers to how quickly a stock can be turned into cash. High market liquidity means there’s a high supply and demand for an asset. That, in turn, makes it easy for buyers to find sellers and vice versa. As a result, transactions can be completed quickly, even when stock values are dropping.

Accounting Liquidity

Accounting liquidity is related to an individual’s or company’s ability to meet their financial obligations, such as regular bills or debt payments.

For an individual, being liquid means they have enough cash or marketable assets (such as stocks) on hand to meet their obligations.

Companies measure liquidity slightly differently by comparing current assets and debt. In addition to cash and marketable assets, current assets also include inventories and accounts receivable, the money customers owe on credit for goods or services they’ve purchased.

Investors may pay attention to company liquidity if they are researching that company’s stock as a potential buy. Companies with higher liquidity may be in better shape than those in risk of defaulting on their debt.

💡 Quick Tip: Before opening any investment account, consider what level of risk you are comfortable with. If you’re not sure, start with more conservative investments, and then adjust your portfolio as you learn more.

How Liquid Are Different Assets?

An investor’s financial portfolio may be made up of a number of different assets of varying liquidities, including cash, stocks, bonds, real estate, and savings vehicles like certificates of deposit (CDs). Cash is the most liquid asset; there is nothing an investor needs to do to convert it into spendable currency.

On the other hand, an investment property is an example of a relatively illiquid asset, as it might take a long time for an investor to sell it should they need access to their money.

CDs are also relatively illiquid assets because they require investors to tie up their money for a preset period of time in exchange for higher interest rates than those available in regular savings accounts. Individuals who need their money early may have to pay hefty fines to access it.

Stocks generally fall on the relatively liquid side of the liquidity spectrum. Stocks that are easy to buy and sell and said to be highly liquid. Stocks with low liquidity may be tougher to sell, and investors may take a bigger financial hit as they seek buyers.

What Is Liquidity Risk?

Liquidity risk is the risk that an individual won’t be able to find a buyer or seller for assets they wish to trade during a given period of time, which can lead to adverse effects on the price. Liquidity risk is higher for complex investments or investment vehicles like CDs that may charge penalties to liquidate or access funds early.

Are Stocks a Liquid Asset?

For the most part, stocks that are traded on a public exchange are considered liquid assets. Some stocks, like those traded on foreign exchanges, may be less liquid as it takes more time to execute a trade.

Generally speaking, when an individual wishes to execute a trade, they use a brokerage account to issue a buy or sell order. The broker then helps match the individual with other buyers and sellers hoping to take the opposite action.

This process can take a little bit of time. Most stock trades settle within a two-day period. A stock trade executed on a Wednesday would typically settle on Friday. Settlement is the official transfer of stocks from a seller’s account to the buyer’s account, and cash from the buyer to the seller.

Because it can take some time for trades to be executed, there can be a difference in price between when an individual places an order and when that order is fulfilled.

How to Calculate a Stock’s Liquidity

One way to figure out a stock’s liquidity is by looking at a metric known as share turnover. This financial ratio compares the volume of shares traded and the number of outstanding shares. A stock’s volume is the number of shares that have been bought or sold over a given period. Outstanding shares refer to all of the shares held by a company’s shareholders.

Higher share turnover indicates high liquidity; investors have an easier time buying and selling. Investors might want to pay close attention to low share turnover, as this can indicate they may have a difficult time selling shares if they need to.

Another measure of a stock’s liquidity is the bid-ask spread. Bid price is the price an individual is willing to pay at a given point in time. The ask price is the price at which a buyer is willing to sell. The bid-ask spread is the difference between the two.

For highly liquid assets, the bid-ask spread tends to be pretty small — as little as a penny. This indicates that buyers and sellers are generally in agreement over what the price of a stock should be. However, as bid-ask spread grows, it is an indication that a stock is increasingly illiquid.

A wide spread can also indicate that a trade may be much more expensive to execute. For example, there may not be enough trade volume to execute an entire order at one price. If prices are rising, an order can become increasingly pricey.

💡 Quick Tip: How to manage potential risk factors in a self directed investment account? Doing your research and employing strategies like dollar-cost averaging and diversification may help mitigate financial risk when trading stocks.

Examples of Liquid Stocks

The most liquid stocks tend to be those that receive the most interest from investors. The large companies that are tracked by the .

Why Stock Liquidity Is Important for Investors

The relative liquidity provided by stocks can be a boon to investors. Stocks help provide the growth needed for investors to meet their savings goals. They are also relatively easy to buy and sell on the market, allowing investors to access their savings quickly when they need it.

The Takeaway

Liquidity is a measure of the ability to turn assets into cash without losing value. So it’s an important metric for investors to pay attention to as they construct their portfolios. But liquidity is just one of many factors to consider when investing.

Investors may want to know how liquid their holdings are so that they can choose the appropriate mix of investments that align with their risk tolerance. It may be comforting to some to know that they can sell investments with relative ease, rather than have their money tied up for the long-term.

Ready to invest in your goals? It’s easy to get started when you open an investment account with SoFi Invest. You can invest in stocks, exchange-traded funds (ETFs), mutual funds, alternative funds, and more. SoFi doesn’t charge commissions, but other fees apply (full fee disclosure here).

For a limited time, opening and funding an Active Invest account gives you the opportunity to get up to $1,000 in the stock of your choice.


What is good liquidity for a stock?

Good liquidity for a stock refers to an investor’s ability to sell the stock in exchange for cash. If a stock is liquid, then it should be relatively easy to sell. If a stock is illiquid, or has bad liquidity, it may be more difficult.

What is a “Liquidity Ratio?”

A liquidity ratio is a financial ratio that can help an investor determine a company’s ability to pay off its debt obligations, particularly in the short-term. There are several liquidity ratios that can be utilized.

Is a higher liquidity better?

Generally, yes, a higher liquidity is better for investors, as it can signal that a company is performing well, and that its stock is in demand. It can also be easier for an investor to sell that stock in exchange for cash.

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What Is Liquidity In Stocks? Why It's Important for Investors | SoFi (2024)


What Is Liquidity In Stocks? Why It's Important for Investors | SoFi? ›

Market liquidity refers to how quickly a stock can be turned into cash. High market liquidity means there's a high supply and demand for an asset. That, in turn, makes it easy for buyers to find sellers and vice versa. As a result, transactions can be completed quickly, even when stock values are dropping.

Why is liquidity important for investors? ›

Whether you're a seasoned investor or just stepping into the financial arena, understanding liquidity and its impact is essential. The ability to swiftly convert assets into cash provides you with the freedom to navigate market fluctuations, seize opportunities, and manage unexpected situations.

What is liquidity in stocks? ›

A stock's liquidity generally refers to how rapidly shares of a stock can be bought or sold without substantially impacting the stock price. Stocks with low liquidity may be difficult to sell and may cause you to take a bigger loss if you cannot sell the shares when you want to.

Is liquidity important in trading? ›

The Liquidity definition refers to the extent to which a particular asset can be bought or sold quickly on the market without having a significant effect on its price. Liquidity is an important factor that investors assess when making their trading decisions since it has an effect on their trades.

Is it good to have an investment with more liquidity? ›

If your assets are all tied up in long-term investments or highly illiquid investments, you may find yourself cash-poor. This can significantly reduce your ability to direct funds into an investment opportunity that comes your way. Your investment strategy should include maintaining a certain level of liquidity.

What is liquidity and why is it important? ›

What Is Liquidity and Why Is It Important for Firms? Liquidity refers to how easily or efficiently cash can be obtained to pay bills and other short-term obligations. Assets that can be readily sold, like stocks and bonds, are also considered to be liquid (although cash is, of course, the most liquid asset of all).

What is good liquidity for a stock? ›

Key Takeaways. The liquidity of a stock is a reference to how easy or difficult it would be for a market participant to sell the stock without impacting the price. A stock that is very liquid has adequate shares outstanding and adequate demand from buyers and sellers.

How to find liquidity in stocks? ›

For example, you can measure a stock's liquidity by how easy it is to buy and sell the stock at a stable price in its respective market. High-liquid markets allow assets to be sold, traded and bought quickly and without causing a significant drop in price value. Low-liquid markets are the exact opposite.

What are the benefits of liquidity? ›

Liquid assets can be quickly and easily changed into currency. Healthy liquidity will help your company overcome financial challenges, secure loans and plan for your financial future.

Is liquidity need important? ›

We all have bills to pay, and having liquidity helps us to meet everyday cash needs and short-term financial obligations – whether we're talking about groceries, car payments, rent or mortgage. Emergency preparedness.

What is liquidity need? ›

Your liquidity needs relate to how much money you need access to quickly. The higher your debt or other risk needs, the higher your liquidity needs. Smart investors will want to keep enough cash reserves to meet short-term needs while investing for the future.

How does liquidity affect investments? ›

The more liquid a stock is, the tighter spread it will tend to have. That's because market makers will be able to rapidly buy and sell and there is less risk that they'll be left with an unwanted position in the stock.

What is liquidity in simple terms? ›

What do you mean by Liquidity? Liquidity is the degree to which a security can be quickly purchased or sold in the market at a price reflecting its current value. Liquidity in finance refers to the ease with which a security or an asset can be converted into cashat market price.

What is an example of a liquidity stock? ›

List of Popular Liquid Stocks in India.
Stock NameIndustryShare prices
Axis Bank LtdConsumer Finance₹1,089.25
Maruti Suzuki India LtdAutomobiles₹12,649.35
ONGCOil, Gas & Consumable Fuels₹271.95
Adani Ports and Special Economic Zone LtdTransportation Infrastructure₹1,352.05
6 more rows
3 days ago

What is an example of liquidity? ›

Cash is the most liquid asset, followed by cash equivalents, which are things like money market accounts, certificates of deposit (CDs), or time deposits. Marketable securities, such as stocks and bonds listed on exchanges, are often very liquid and can be sold quickly via a broker.

What does 1 million liquid mean? ›

Although there is no precise definition of how wealthy someone must be to fit into this category, high net worth is generally considered to include liquid assets of $1 million. A liquid asset is cash or money in investments that can be converted to cash relatively easily at any time.

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